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Artificial Intelligence

This guide provides information about using generative AI tools for study and in research in an ethical, responsible and evaluative way.

Using AI in articles for publication

Publishers are considering the use of generative AI in articles submitted for publication. If you are writing with the intention of publishing your work, you should check the publisher's information page for authors to check whether using generative AI for article preparation is allowed.

No major publishers permit AI tools to be an author. AI tools cannot carry out the role of, or be listed as, an author of an article including making a substantial contribution, approval a final version or being accountable for accuracy and integrity. These tasks require knowledge of the subject, critical thinking, analysis, and interpretation of data.

AI generated content is not considered capable of initiating an original piece of research without direction from human authors. It also raises issues of plagiarism as there is no guarantee that content is original and not copied from existing sources. Several tests have also revealed that AI tools are not capable of of effectively creating a literature review (e.g. by generating incorrect or made-up references and DOIs).

Some publishers prohibit the use of AI tools to author scientific articles but allow some use in prewriting activities. See the table below for some examples of publisher policies.

Publisher List as author Notes on use
Cambridge University Press No

AI must be declared and clearly explained in publications.

Authors are accountable for integrity in papers, including use of AI and any AI use must not breach plagiarism policy.

Elsevier No

Text: Can use in writing process before submission, but only to improve the language and readability of the paper. Human oversight recommended. This requires appropriate disclosure at bottom of paper in a section before the references. Authors responsible and accountable for contents of work.

Exception: Use of AI tools to analyse and draw insights from data as part of research process.

Images: Create or alter images including enhancing, obscuring, moving, removing, or introducing a specific feature within an image or figure. Adjustments of brightness, contrast or colour balance are acceptable if and as long as they do not obscure or eliminate any information present in the original. Image forensics tools might be applied to identify suspected image irregularities. Exception: use as part of research design or research methods. Use must be described in a reproducible manner in the methods section (including name of model, version, extension numbers and manufacturer). Use in production of artworks (e.g. for journal covers) is not permitted.

Emerald No

Text: The generation or reporting of results using an AI tool is not permissible. The in-text reporting of statistics using an AI tool is not permissible.

Images: The submission and publication of images created by AI tools is not permitted.

Permissible: Using a generative AI tool to improve its language and readability would be permissible (this feature mirrors standard tools already used to improve spelling and grammar)

IEEE No The use of artificial intelligence-generated text in an article shall be disclosed in the acknowledgements section of any paper submitted to an IEEE Conference or Periodical. The sections of the paper that use AI-generated text shall have a citation to the AI system used to generate the text.
Sage No Text: Clearly indicate the use of language models in the manuscript. Provide a list of sources used to generate content. Be conscious of plagiarism with AU using text that can be reproduced from other sources. Verify the accuracy, validity and appropriateness of the content.
Science Journals No

Text: Text generated from AI cannot be used in papers.

Images: (including figures, images or graphics) not permitted for use without explicit permission from editor.

Violation of policy constitutes scientific misconduct.

Springer No

Images and videos: created by AI tools not permitted. Images or videos directly referencing AI in an article about AI may be permitted. Reviewed on case-by-case basis. Non-generative tools to manipulate, combine or enhance existing images or figures should be disclosed to allow case-by-case review.

Exceptions: Images/art obtained from agencies that have contractual relationships that have created images in a legally accepted manner.

The use of large language models (LLMs) should be properly documented in the methods section or in a suitable alternative part of the manuscript.

Taylor & Francis No

Use of AI based tools is not in line with authorship criteria.

Authors are responsible for originality, validity and integrity of content.

If AI tools are used, they must be acknowledged and documented appropriately.

Wiley No

Text: Use with acknowledgement. If author has used tool to develop part of a manuscript, they must describe transparently and in detail in the methods or acknowledgement sections. If using AI, the author is fully responsible for accuracy of information and referencing sources correctly.

Final decision about whether use is appropriate is determined by the journal editor.

Permissible: tools that improve spelling, grammar and general editing.


For some of the latest commentary/research of using AI in academic research, check out these links below:

Using AI in grant applications

Grant funding bodies have recently released guidelines on the use of generative AI in grant applications and application peer review process. We will continue to add to this list as more guidelines become available.