This tutorial from the University of Minnesota walks you through the steps of EBP with practice questions for Nursing, Occupational Therapy, Public Health, Physical Therapy and other health fields at each step.
Evidence-based practice is about using the best available evidence (eg the results of case studies, cohort studies, clinical trials, etc) to inform clinical practice.
The steps in locating evidence include:
In formulating a question, a good technique to use is to take your clinical problem and apply the PICO method.
The PICO Model:
PICO stands for:-
Patient, Population or Problem
Intervention or exposure
In practice, well-built clinical questions usually contain these four elements.
What does it mean to search for evidence-based literature? Isn't searching Google enough? The answer is No. Google, and other search engines "scrape" information on the Internet using proprietary algorithms. This means that the search engines control your search, you don't. This may not be a problem if you're searching for things to buy, consumer reviews, or websites of organizations. But since search engines find information of all kinds, much of it opinion based, you need to use another tool when you're conducting evidence-based research. Article databases focus on the professional, scientific literature and are usually indexed, so that you can create a search to more precisely find reliable scientific evidence on your topic.
The evidence hierarchy pyramid shows you how reliable different types of research are. The lower levels contain information that is based on less evidence, such as expert opinion or very early experiments. Higher up the pyramid, the amount of literature decreases, but it is based on more evidence and thus is more reliable.
Searching for Evidence-Based Medicine in PubMed (Medline)
*Note: Medline is included in PubMed. When you search PubMed, you are searching Medline
There are several publication types in Medline that indicate that an article is useful for evidence based practice. If you limit your search to include each of these publication types you should get references to most articles indexed in Medline that are appropriate for evidence based practice.
Both of these experimental designs use a control group:
CLINICAL TRIAL PHASE III
CLINICAL TRIAL PHASE IV
As does this one:
CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL
A statistical analysis that allows the results of several studies to be pooled to provide more reliable EBP data.
Should be a list of evidence based serial statements to assist in diagnosis and treatment of particular conditions.
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
This is the gold standard for Evidence Based Practice.
Four study categories are provided:
You can choose the emphasis to be either specificity or sensitivity
For details see the PubMed Clinical Queries Filter Table which explains sensitive (broad) and specific (narrow) searches and approximate equivalents in the PubMed query language.
There is also a Systematic Reviews filter (a pre-determined search strategy) which can be appended to any search