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Referencing - Law (AGLC4)

How to cite...

For cases that have been reported (published in a set of law reports).

For example:

Note: in the last example the date is in square brackets. Use square brackets around the year when volume numbers are either not used, or start at 1 every year.

Include in the citation:

  • party names
  • year
  • volume
  • name of law report series
  • starting page
  • pinpoint reference (sequential paragraph number within the judgment) - if required

See the Australian Guide to Legal Citation for more details.

Practice now! Drag the citation elements into their correct order below:

Unreported judgments are cited using medium neutral citation. This format was developed to ensure consistent citing of cases regardless of whether they are reported or unreported (or in print or online format).

For example:

Gray v Richards [2014] HCA 40 at [9]

Include in the citation:

  • party names
  • year
  • court (abbreviated)
  • judgment number
  • pinpoint reference (sequential paragraph number within the judgment)

‚ÄčSee the Australian Guide to Legal Citation for more details.

Want to learn more?

A useful explanation of the medium neutral citation is set out by the New South Wales Law and Justice Foundation in their guides LISC Recommended Standard for Medium Neutral Citations

For Acts and delegated legislation. Note use of italics for legislation title.

For example:

Civil Liability Act 1936 (SA)

Development Act 1993 (SA) s 6(1)

Migration Regulations 1994 (Cth) regs 2.01-2.02.

High Court Rules 2004 (Cth) r 42.02.2

Include in the citation:

  • short title
  • year
  • jurisdiction (abbreviated) - see AGLC Rule 3.1.3 for list of abbreviations
  • pinpoint reference (if required) - see AGLC Rule 3.1.4 for list of abbreviations
  • delegated legislation (eg regulations, rules and orders) - see AGLC 3.4, should be cited in the same manner as primary legislation (see rule 3.1)

See the Australian Guide to Legal Citation for more details.

For journal articles in published journals. Note use of italics for journal title.

For example:

Iain Field, 'Good faith protections and public sector liability' (2016) 23 Tort Law Journal 210.

Angela Bowne, 'Reforms to civil justice: Alternative dispute resolution and the courts' (2015) 39 Australian Bar Review 275.

Include in the citation:

  • author(s)
  • title
  • year
  • volume and issue
  • journal name
  • page
  • pinpoint (if required)

See the Australian Guide to Legal Citation for more details.

Need to reference something from the internet? Online versions should only be cited when a print version does not exist.

Articles published in Online Journals are covered in AGLC Rule 5.10 

Electronic newspapers are covered in AGLC Rule 7.11.2.

Interviewed some one or citing information a person shared on a tour - see AGLC 7.13 Interviews and similiar formats

Online blogs can be cited - using AGLC Rule 7.15 and Social media posts using AGLC Rule 7.16

For other internet materials such as webpages, see AGLC Rule 7.15

The rules generally try to maintain as similar a citation to the print versions as possible. A URL should be included if there is no print version; if in doubt include the URL for ease of access..