I have included references to printed versions of scales as for some I can't find electronic versions. References to print versions are in bold, whereas hyper links are in blue. All of the printed sources are available in the library. There are further sources of information on psychological testing on my psychology page and the University's Psychology Department maintains a test library.
Black Dog Institute - Rating Scales List
The Mood Disorders Unit (MDU) research team at the Black Dog Institute has been responsible for developing a number of rating scales which are available from this site.
On this page you will find links to articles in Psychiatric News, fact sheets, and videos that explain the new organization and features of the DSM-5 and the diagnostic differences between DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5. The links are updated with the publication of each bimonthly edition of Psychiatric News.
DSM-5 online assessment measures
These patient assessment measures were developed to be administered at the initial patient interview and to monitor treatment progress. Instructions, scoring information, and interpretation guidelines are included.
International Classification of Diseases (ICD)
ICD-10 is available at this WHO site.
Measuring consumer outcomes in mental health: field testing of selected measures of consumer outcome in mental health
A report to the Australian Health Ministers' Advisory Council National Mental Health Working Group Mental Health Branch Commonwealth Department of Health and Family Services, by Terry Stedman, Peter Yellowlees, Graham Mellsop, Robert Clarke, and Suzanne Drake. Canberra, Department of Health and Family Services, October 1997.
Details of the measures are listed here
Measuring the Promise: A Compendium of Recovery Measures, Volume II
By Theodora Campbell-Orde, Judi Chamberlin, Jenneth Carpenter, and H. Stephen Leff. Produced by the Evaluation Center@HSRI, in the United States, October 2005. This document offers a synopsis of the November 2004 invitational conference Measuring the Promise: Assessing Recovery and Self-Determination Instruments for Evidence-Based Practices. Reviews of the instruments themselves follow this section. The instruments are divided into two categories: measures of individual recovery and measures of recovery-promoting environments. It concludes with recommendations for further developments in the measurement of recovery
National Center for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder - Assessment
This site provides clinicians and researchers with descriptive, reference, and contact information about child and adult measures of trauma exposure and responses.
Quality of Life Measurement Among Persons with Chronic Mental Illness : A Critique of Measures and Methods
Prepared by Mark J. Atkinson, and Sharon Zibin, for Systems for Health Directorate, Health Promotion and Programs Branch, Health Canada. Ottawa, Health Canada, 1996.
Review of Recovery Measures
Australian Mental Health Outcomes and Classification Network. Version 1.01 was completed in 2010, by Philip Burgess, Jane Pirkis, Tim Coombs, and Alan Rosen.
Stony Brook Attachment Measures
This site, from the Department of Psychology at the State University of New York at Stony Brook, contains a number of instruments relating to the measurement of mother infant interaction.
TMdb (Tests and Measures in the Social Sciences: Tests Available in Compilation Volumes)
Compiled by Helen Hough, Health Sciences Librarian, University of Texas at Arlington, an excellent listing of tests published in compilation volumes of tests and measures. It has a useful author and keyword index.
For information on the use of individual scales you will need to search under the name of the scale in the alphabetical list below.
Many of the scales listed are also available on the CD which accompanies the
VTPU | Mental Health Instruments in non-English Languages
A useful resource containing mental health instruments in non-English languages, from the Victorian Transcultural Psychiatry Unit.
Guy W. ECDEU assessment manual for psychopharmacology. Revised. (DHEW Publ No ADM 76-338). Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Administration, NIMH Psychopharmacology Research Branch, Division of Extramural Research Programs, 1976, pp 534-537
Munetz M R, Benjamin S.
How to examine patients using the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale.
Hospital and Community Psychiatry 1988, 39:1172-1177
is a useful resource to consult for the application of this instrument.
For a selective list of journal articles on the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale and its uses click here
Agitated Behavior Scale
This scale was developed to allow objective assessment of agitated behaviour, particularly serial assessments for the evaluation of interventions to reduce agitation.
Corrigan J D
Development of a scale for assessment of agitation following traumatic brain injury
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neurospychology, 1989, 11: 261-277.
Alarm Distress Baby Scale (ADBB)
The ADBB scale is a scale to assess social withdrawal behaviour in infants under 3 years of age.
A validity and reliability study of assessment and screening for sustained withdrawal reaction in infancy: The Alarm Distress Baby scale.
Infant Mental Health Journal 2001, 22 (5): 559-575.
The scale is available here - see appendix B
Grof P, Duffy A, Cavazzoni P, Grof E, Garnham J, MacDougall M, O'Donovan C, Alda M
Is response to prophylactic lithium a familial trait?
Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 63 (10): 942-947
See Table 2. p. 944, Retrospective Criteria of Lithium Response in Research Subjects
Hawthorne Graeme, Richardson Jeff, Osborne Richard, and McNeil Helen.
The Assessment of Quality of Life (AQoL) Instrument Construction, Initial Validation & Utility Scaling.
Centre for Health Program Evaluation. Working paper 76.
This paper is an update of CHPE Working paper 66 "The Australian Quality of Life (AQoL) Instrument: Initial Validation" October, 1997.
For a selective list of journal articles on the Assessment of Quality of Life Scale and its uses click here
Awareness of Illness Inventory (AII)
Cuffel B J, Alford J, Fischer E P, Owen R R
Awareness of illness in schizophrenia and outpatient treatment adherence
Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease Nov 1996, 184: 653-659
Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale (BARS)
Barnes T R E
A rating scale for drug-induced akathisia.
British Journal of Psychiatry 1989, 156: 672-676
Beck Depression Inventory
Beck A T, Ward C H, Mendelson M, Mock J, Erbaugh J
An inventory for measuring depression
Archives of General Psychiatry June 1961, 4: 561-571
For a selective list of journal articles on the Beck Depression Inventory and its uses click here
Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS)
The Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) is a 20-item scale for measuring negative attitudes about the future. Research consistently supports a positive relationship between BHS scores and measures of depression, suicidal intent, and ideation.
Beck A T, Weissman A, Lester D, Trexler L.
The measurement of pessimism: the hopelessness scale.
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1974 Dec;42(6):861-5
Beck A T, Steer RA, Kovacs M, Garrison B
Hopelessness and eventual suicide: a 10-year prospective study of patients hospitalized with suicidal ideation.
American Journal of Psychiatry. 1985 May;142(5):559-63.
For a selective list of journal articles on the Beck Hopelessness Scale and its uses click here
Behavior Pathology in Alzheimer's Disease Rating Scale (BEHAVE-AD)
This scale was developed to measure potentially remediable behavioural symptoms in people with Alzheimer's disease.
Reisberg B, Borenstein J, Salob S P, Ferris S H, Franssen E, Georgotas A
Behavioral symptoms in Alzheimer's disease: phenomenology and treatment.
Journal of Clinical Psychiatry May 1987, 48 Suppl: 9-15.
Eisen S V, Grob M C, and Klein A A
BASIS: the development of a self-report measure for psychiatric inpatient evaluation
Psychiatric Hospital Fall 1986, 17(4): 165-71
There is also a revised 24 item scale
Behavioural Activity Rating Scale (BARS)
The Behavioural Activity Rating Scale (BARS) was designed to measure the degree of agitated behavior in patients with psychosis.
Swift R H, Harrigan E P, Cappelleri J C, Kramer D, and Chandler L P
Validation of the behavioural activity rating scale (BARS): a novel measure of activity in agitated patients.
Journal of Psychiatric Research Mar-Apr 2002, 36(2):87-95.
Behavioural Status Index
The Behavioural Status Index (BSI) is a behaviourally based instrument developed from previous research carried out by Mahgoub and Reed in the early 1980s. Originally known as the Behavioural Recovery Index, it was developed to assess therapeutic impacts during ‘bridging’ therapy as patients moved from hospital to community-based psychiatric care. Four areas of behaviour were assessed insight; communication and social skills; self and family care; and work and recreational activities. Substantial reworking of the existing four sub-scales has been undertaken and a new ‘risk’ sub-scale has been developed for inclusion in this forensic version. This development is described in:
Woods P, Reed V, and Robinson D
The Behavioural Status Index: therapeutic assessment of risk, insight, communication and social skills.
Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing April 1999, 6: 79-90
For a selective list of journal articles on the Behavioural Status Index and its uses click here
Chadwik P, and Birchwood M
The omnipotence of voices. II: The Beliefs About Voices Questionnaire (BAVQ)
British Journal of Psychiatry 1995, 166:773-776
Chandwick P, Lees S, Birchwood M
The revised Beliefs About Voices Questionnaire (BAVQ-R).
British Journal of Psychiatry 2000 Sep; 177:229-32
Bipolar Affective Disorder Dimension Scale (BADDS)
Craddock Nick, Jones Ian, Kirov George, and Jones L
The Bipolar Affective Disorder Dimension Scale (BADDS) a dimensional scale for rating lifetime psychopathology in Bipolar spectrum disorders
BMC Psychiatry. 2004, 4: 19-
Bipolar Spectrum Diagnostic Scale
The BSDS is a self-report questionnaire for bipolar disorder
Nassir Ghaemi S1, Miller CJ, Berv DA, Klugman J, Rosenquist KJ, Pies RW.
Sensitivity and specificity of a new bipolar spectrum diagnostic scale.
Journal of Affective Disorders. 2005 Feb;84(2-3):273-7.
For a selective list of journal articles on the Bipolar Spectrum Diagnostic Scale and its uses click here
Overall J E, and Gorham D R
The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale
Psychological Reports 1962, 10: 799-812
Schutte, Nicola S.
Sourcebook of adult assessment strategies, by Nicola S Schutte and John M Malouff. New York: Plenum Press, c1995. (pp. 453-460)
For a selective list of journal articles on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and its uses click here
The Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia
The Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia has been developed by Drs. D. and J. Addington at the University of Calgary, to assess the level of depression in schizophrenia. It has been evaluated in both relapsed and remitted patients.
For a selective list of journal articles on the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia and its uses click here
Cambridge Depersonalization Scale
The Cambridge Depersonalization Scale is meant to capture the frequency and duration of depersonalization symptoms over the 'last 6 months'.
Sierra M, Berrios G E
The Cambridge Depersonalization Scale: a new instrument for the measurement of depersonalization.
Psychiatry Research 2000 Mar 6;93(2):153-64.
For a selective list of journal articles on the Cambridge Depersonalization Scale and its uses click here
Camdex-R : the Cambridge examination for mental disorders of the elderly / by Martin Roth ... [et al]. Rev. ed.. Cambridge, U.K. ; New York, NY, USA :, Cambridge University Press,. 1997.
Child Behavior Checklist Web Site
The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) is the centrepiece of a family of psychological assessment instruments developed by Dr. Thomas M. Achenbach and used by professionals in the mental health and education fields for evaluating emotional and behavioral problems and competencies of children and adolescents. You can view a sample copy here.
For a selective list of journal articles on the Child Behavior Checklist and its uses click here
Children's GAF see Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAF)
Clinician Administered PTSD Scale(CAPS)
From the United States Department of Veterans Affairs, this scale was developed by the National Center for PTSD.
Compassion Satisfaction and Fatigue (CSF) Test
Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI)
The CIDI is a structured instrument for the assessment of mental disorders according to the definitions and criteria of ICD-10 and DSM-IV. It can be used in epidemiological and cross-cultural studies as well as for clinical and research purposes. Further information is available from the CIDI Home Page on the WHO website. The Australian training centre is
Clinical Research Unit for Anxiety and Depression St. Vincent's Hospital Darlinghurst, NSW 2010 Australia Tel: +61-2-9332-1013 Fax: +61-2-9332-4316 Contact: Dr Gavin Andrews or Dr Lorna Peters Email: email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org
For a selective list of journal articles on the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and its uses click here
Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia
The Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD) is designed for use in elderly patients with underlying cognitive deficits. Because this patient population may give unreliable answers, the CSDD additionally uses information from a patient informant, someone who knows and has frequent contact with the patient, and can include family members or care staff.
For a selective list of journal articles on the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia and its uses click here
Crown-Crisp Experiential Index (CCEI)
Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire
The DemeGraph is an aid to assessing patients for dementia by combining standard cognitive testing with a formal means of assessing an informant's view of changes in the patient's memory and cognitive functioning.
DEMQOL and DEMQOL-Proxy
Measurement of health-related quality of life for people with dementia: development of a new instrument (DEMQOL) and an evaluation of current methodology
Health Technology Assessment 2005, 9(10)
Gold-standard psychometric techniques were used to develop DEMQOL and DEMQOL-Proxy. First, a conceptual framework was generated from a review of the literature, qualitative interviews with people with dementia and their carers, expert opinion and team discussion. Items for each component of the conceptual framework were drafted and piloted to produce questionnaires for the person with dementia (DEMQOL) and carer (DEMQOL-Proxy)
Depression Anxiety Stress Scales - DASS
The DASS is a 42 item self-report inventory.
For a selective list of journal articles on the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and its uses click here
Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES)
This is a self-report scale that assesses the degree and types of dissociative experiences. There are two authorised versions:
Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES)
Bernstein E, and Putnam FW
Development, reliability, and validity of a dissociation scale.
Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 1986, 174: 727-735
The 28 questions in the scale are listed as an appendix.
Dissociative Experiences Scale - II (DES-II)
Carlson E B, and Putnam F W
An update on the Dissociative Experiences Scale
Dissociation 1993 6: 16-27
This article serves as a manual, and summarises data on psychiatrically healthy and clinical samples. It also contains a reproducible copy of the DES-II
The DES and the DES-II contain the same 28 questions and differ only in response format. Copies can be ordered from
Sidran Institute 200 East Joppa Road Suite 207 Baltimore, MD 21286-3107
For a selective list of journal articles on the Dissociative Experiences Scale and its uses click here
Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI)
Hogan T P, Awad A G, Eastwood R
A self-report scale predictive of drug compliance in schizophrenics: reliability and discriminative validity
Psychological Medicine February 1983, 13(1): 177-183
There is also a useful book on the use of the scale:
Perinatal psychiatry : use and misuse of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale / edited by John Cox, Jeni Holden. London : Gaskell : distributed in North America by American Psychiatric Press, c1994.
For a selective list of journal articles on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and is uses click here
Marks I M, and Mathews A M
Brief standard self-rating scale for phobic patients
Behaviour Research and Therapy 1979, 17: 263-267
Baer R A, Smith G T, Hopkins J, Krietemeyer J, & Toney L
Using self- report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness.
Assessment 2006 , 13(1) 27-45.
For a selective list of journal articles on the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and its uses click here
Walach H, Buchheld N, Buttenmuller V, Kleinknecht N, Schmidt S
Measuring Mindfulness--The Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI).
Personality and Individual Differences 2006, 40, 1543-1555.
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is one of the most common mental disorders; however, there is no brief clinical measure for assessing GAD. The objective of this study was to develop a brief self-report scale to identify probable cases of GAD and evaluate its reliability and validity.
Spitzer R L, Kroenke K, Williams J B, Lowe B
A brief measure for assessing generalized anxiety disorder: the GAD-7
Archives of Internal Medicine 2006 May 22;166(10):1092-7.
For a selective list of journal articles on the GAD-7 and its uses click here
General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)
Goldberg, David P
The detection of psychiatric illness by questionnaire: a technique for the identification and assessment of non-psychotic psychiatric illness. London, New York, Oxford University Press, 1972
Maudsley monographs no 21, 1972
Goldberg, David P
Manual of the General Health Questionnaire. Windsor, NFER, 2008.
Measuring health : a guide to rating scales and questionnaires, by Ian McDowell, and Claire Newell.2nd ed., New York, Oxford University Press, 1996. (pp. 225-236)
For a selective list of journal articles on the General Health Questionnaire and its uses click here
The General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE)
This site provides details of the scale as well as a bibliography of references to it.
Geriatric Depression Scale
The original 30 item version of the scale appears in
Yesavage J A, Brink T L, Rose T L, Lum O, Huang V, Adey M, Leirer V O
Development and validation of a geriatric depression screening scale: a preliminary report
Journal of Psychiatric Research 1982-83, 17: 37-49
Geriatric Depression Scale (Short Form) A
lso available from the site above, this is a 15 item scale, adapted from the original 30 item version.
Sheikh J I, Yesavage J A:
Geriatric depression scale (GDS): Recent evidence and development of a shorter version in Clinical Gerontology: A Guide to Assessment and Intervention, edited by TL Brink. Binghamton, NY, Haworth Press, 1986, pp 165–173.
For a selective list of journal articles on the Geriatric Depression Scale and its uses click here
Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAF)
The GAF is a revised version of the Global Assessment Scale (GAS) that was used as an Axis V of DSM-III to assess a patient's overall functioning.
There is now a modified version of the GAF:- Modiified Global Assessment of Functioning - (Revised mGAF-R)
For a selective list of journal articles on the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale and its uses click here
Global Assessment Scale (GAS)
Endicott J, Spitzer R L, Fleiss J L, Cohen J
The Global Assessment Scale: a product for measuring overall severity of psychiatric disturbance
Archives of General Psychiatry 1976, 33: 766-771
Global Mental Health Assessment Tool
A computer assisted clinical interview to be used in routine clinical practice to detect and manage mental disorders in most settings. There is a Primary Care Version and a Full Version.
HAMD-7 (a 7-item abbreviated version of the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale)
McIntyre, Roger S, et al.
Measuring the severity of depression and remission in primary care: validation of the HAMD-7 scale
CMAJ. November 22, 2005 173(11): 1327-1334.
Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA)
This scale was originally developed by M.C. Hamilton in 1959.
A rating scale for depression
Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 1960, 23: 56-62
Schutte, Nicola S
Sourcebook of adult assessment strategies, by Nicola S Schutte and John M. Malouff. New York: Plenum Press, c1995. (pp.127-134)
For a selective list of journal articles on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and its uses click here
Harvard Department of Psychiatry and National Depression Screening Day Scale (HANDS)
The Harvard Department of Psychiatry and National Depression Screening Day Scale (HANDS) is an easy-to-use screening tool of 10 questions to identify patients with symptoms of recent depression.
Baer L 1, Jacobs D G, Meszler-Reizes J, Blais M, Fava M, Kessler R, Magruder K, Murphy J, Kopans B, Cukor P, Leahy L, O'Laughlen J
Development of a brief screening instrument: the HANDS.
Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics. 2000, 69(1):3 5-41
Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ)
There are six versions of this questionnaire. The Vietnamese, Cambodian, and Laotian versions of the HTQ were written for use with Southeast Asian refugees. The Japanese version was written for survivors of the 1995 Kobe earthquake. The Croatian Veterans' Version was written for soldiers who survived the wars in the Balkans, while the Bosnian version was written for civilian survivors of that conflict.
The HoNOS (Health of the Nation Outcome Scales) (4th version) for psychiatry are in the British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 174 May 1999, accompanied by a collection of articles examining their utility, validity and reliability.
For the most up-to-date information on all of the HoNOS scales for psychiatry - rating instructions, glossary, and score sheets, check the HoNOS web site
There are versions for different mental health service user groups:
HoNOS: working age adults HoNOS65+: older adults HoNOSCA: children and adolescents HoNOS-LD: learning disabilities HoNOS-secure: HoNOS-secure is the latest version of HoNOS-MDO. HoNOS-ABI: acquired brain injury
By Pirkis Jane E, Burgess Philip M, Kirk Pia K, Dodson Sarity, CoombsTim J, and Williamson Michelle K
A review of the psychometric properties of the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS) family of measures
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 2005, 3:76
For a selective list of journal articles on the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales and their uses click here
The Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS) and the sixteen item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS) are available to download from this site.
Both the clinician rating version, and the self-report version of the QIDS appear as appendices in the article below
Rush A J, Trivedi M H, Ibrahim H M, Carmody T J, Arnow B, Klein D N, Markowitz J C, Ninan P T, Kornstein S, Manber R, Thase M E, Kocsis J H, and Keller M B
The 16-Item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS), clinician rating (QIDS-C), and self-report (QIDS-SR): a psychometric evaluation in patients with chronic major depression
Biological Psychiatry 2003, 54(5): 573-83
Illness Behaviour Questionnaire (IBQ)
Pilowsky Issy, and Spence Neil
Manual for the illness behaviour questionnaire (IBQ) . 3rd ed. Adelaide: The Author, c1994.
For a selective list of journal articles on the Illness Behaviour Questionnaire and its uses click here
Horowitz M, Wilner N, Alvarez W
Impact of Event Scale: a measure of subjective stress
Psychosomatic Medicine May 1979, 41(3): 209-18.
Weiss D S, and Marmar C R
The Impact of Event Scale - Revised, in Assessing Psychological Trauma and PTSD. Edited by Wilson J P, and Keane T M. New York, Guilford Press, 1996, pp 399-411
Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE)
The IQCODE is a short questionnaire designed to assess cognitive decline and dementia in elderly people. The questionnaire is filled out by a relative or friend who has known the elderly person for 10 years or more.
International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE)
Assessment and diagnosis of personality disorders : the International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE) / edited by Armand W Loranger, Aleksandar Janca, and Norman Sartorius. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, c1997.
Internet Mental Health Quality of Life Scale: A Quality of Life Questionnaire
This scale measures social and occupational functioning, mental health, physical health, and progress.
InterSePT Scale for Suicidal Thinking (ISST)
The InterSePT Scale for Suicidal Thinking (ISST) is a 12-item instrument for the assessment of current suicidal ideation in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders.
Lindenmayer J P, Czobor P, Alphs L, Nathan A M, Anand R, Islam Z, Chou J C
InterSePT Study Group. The InterSePT scale for suicidal thinking reliability and validity
Schizophrenia Research 2003 Sep 1;63(1-2):161-70.
Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS)
Kennedy Axis V
The Kennedy Axis V is published in:
Mastering the Kennedy Axis V: A New Psychiatric Assessment of Patient Functioning. American Psychiatric Publishing, 2003.
You can request a free copy from the site below KennedyMD Consulting - Kennedy Axis V
(Nurses' Observation Scale for Inpatient Evaluation) The Kennedy NOSIE is published in:
Fundamentals of Psychiatric Treatment Planning, Second Edition. American Psychiatric Publishing, 2003.
You can request a free copy from the site below KennedyMD Consulting - Nurse Observation Scale
Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10)
This is a scale of psychological distress developed for use in epidemiological surveys. It is suitable for use as an outcome measure in people with anxiety and depressive disorders. The scale was developed by R. Kessler, School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston.
Andrews G., Slade T
Interpreting scores on the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (k10).
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 2001, 25: 494-497.
The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10)
Population Research and Outcome Studies PROS Brief Reports 2002-14
The K10 scale was used in the study below
Avery Jodie, Dal Grande Eleonora, Taylor Anne, and Gill Tiffany
Which South Australians Experience Psychological Distress? Kessler Psychological Distress 10-item Scale July 2002 - June 2004
Adelaide, Population Research and Outcome Studies Unit, South Australian Department of Health, June 2004.
Version 1.0 of October 1996 of the Kiddie-SADS-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL) is available from this site.
Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale
Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) is a questionnaire whose objective is to assess the range of social interaction and performance situations that individuals with social phobia may fear and/or avoid. It is also a popular measurement tool used by researches to evaluate the efficiency of various social anxiety disorder treatments, including pharmacological trials.
Liebowitz M R
Modern Problems of Pharmacopsychiatry 1987, 22 : 141-173
Life Experiences Survey (LES)
Sarason I G, Johnson J H, and Siegel J M
Assessing the impact of life changes: development of the Life Experiences Survey
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1978, 46: 932-946
Life Skills Profile (LSP)
The .pdf provides a brief description of the three versions of the LSP; lists the items in them and how they can be scored; and gives a bibliography of articles citing the LSP. Contacts for further information are listed in the document.
Rosen A, Hadzi-Pavlovc D, and Parker G
The Life Skills Profile: a measure assessing function and disability in schizophrenia
Schizophrenia Bulletin 1989, 15: 325-337
Range of Impaired Functioning Tool
The Liverpool University Neuroleptic Side Effect Rating Scale. LUNSERS is a fully validated and comprehensive self-rating scale for measuring the distress from side effects of neuroleptics at any particular time.
Day J C, Wood G, Dewey M, and Bentall R P.
A self-rating scale for measuring neuroleptic side-effects. Validation in a group of schizophrenic patients
British Journal of Psychiatry 1995, 166: 650-653
Major (ICD-10) Depression Inventory (MDI) The MDI items cover the ICD-10 symptoms of depression. These symptoms also include the DSM-IV major depression symptoms, although in DSM-IV ' low self-esteem ' is incorporated in the item of guilt.
Maudsley Addiction Profile (MAP) A brief instrument for treatment outcome research, by John Marsden and others. National Addiction Centre/Institute of Psychiatry, July 1998.
For a list of journal articles on the Maudsley Addiction Profile and its uses click here
Measure of Parental Style (MOPS) The MOPS is a self-assessment tool used to measure perceived parenting styles.
Mental Health Inventory (MHI)
Veit C T,and Ware J E
The structure of psychological distress and well-being in general populations
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1983, 31(5):730-742
Mental State Examination (MSE)
Pridmore, Saxby. The psychiatric interview. Amsterdam : Harwood Academic, c2000. Subtitle on cover: A guide to history taking and the mental state examination
Trzepacz, Paula T. and Baker, Robert W. Psychiatric mental status examination. New York : Oxford University Press, 1993.
Location: Barr Smith Main collection Call Number: 616.890751 T876p
Also available online
Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire (also known as the Crown-Crisp Experiential Index (CCEI))
Crown S, and Crisp A H
A short clinical diagnostic self-rating scale for psychoneurotic patients: the Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire (M.H.Q.)
British Journal of Psychiatry 1966, 112: 917-923
For a selective list of journal articles on the Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire and its uses click here
Millon Clinical Mutiaxial Inventory - III (MCMI-III)
Millon T, Davis R, and Millon C MCMI-III Manual, 2nd. edition. Minneapolis, MN, National Computer Systems, 1997
The MCMI-III is copyrighted and can be purchased from Pearson Assessments, P.O. Box 1416, Minneapolis, MN 55440
Mini Mental State Examination
Folstein M, Folstein S, and McHugh P R
Mini-Mental State: a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician.
Journal of Psychiatric Research 1975, 12: 189-198
Schutte, Nicola S
Sourcebook of adult assessment strategies, by Nicola S Schutte and John M Malouff. New York: Plenum Press, c1995. (pp.13-18)
Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc. (PAR), is now the publisher of the Mini Mental State Examination ("MMSE").The MMSE is copyrighted and cannot be reproduced without permission from PAR
For a selective list of journal articles on the Mini Mental State Examination and its uses click here
Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS)
Montgomery S A, and Asberg M
A new depression scale designed to be sensitive to change
British Journal of Psychiatry 1979, 134: 382-38
Burns A, Lawlor B, and Craig S.
Assessment scales in old age psychiatry. London, Martin Dunitz, 1999. p. 7
For a selective list of journal articles on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale and its uses click here
Hirschfeld RM, Williams J B, Spitzer R L, et al.
Development and validation of a screening instrument for bipolar spectrum disorder: the Mood Disorder Questionnaire
American Journal of Psychiatry. 2000 Nov; 157(11): 1873-5.
MOS 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36)
Short Form Health Survey (SF-36)
Zimet D, Dahlem N W, Zimet S G, and Farley G K
The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support.
Journal of Personality Assessment 1988, 52: 30-41
Multi-dimensional Support Scale
Neuling S J & Winefield H R
Social support and recovery after surgery for breast cancer: Frequency and correlates of supportive behaviours by family, friends and surgeon
Social Science and Medicine, 27: 385-392.
Barker Sela, Barron Nancy, McFarland Bentson, Bigelow Douglas.
Multnomah Community Ability Scale. Network Behavioral Health and Multnomah County, Oregon, 1994
Dickerson F B, Origoni A E, Pater A, Friedman B K, Kordonski W M
An expanded version of the Multnomah Community Ability Scale: anchors and interview probes for the assessment of adults with serious mental illness.
Community Mental Health Journal April 2003, 39(2): 131-7.
Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI)
Cummings Jeffrey L, Mega M, Gray K, Rosenberg-Thompson S, et al
The Neuropsychiatric Inventory: Comprehensive assessment of psychopathology in dementia
Neurology 1994, 44: 2308-2314
For a selective list of journal articles on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory and its uses click here
Nurses' Observation Scale for Inpatient Evaluation NOSIE (30) The Nurses' Observation Scale for Inpatient Evaluation (NOSIE) is a highly sensitive ward behavior rating scale. Final item selection includes the best 30 of an original pool of 100 items, tested on a sample of 630 chronic schizophrenic patients.
Honigfeld G, Gillis R D, Klett C J
Nurses' observation scale for inpatient evaluation: a new scale for measuring improvement in chronic schizophrenia.
Journal of Clinical Psychology 1965, 21: 65-71
Honigfeld G, Gillis R D, Klett C J
NOSIE-30: A treatment-sensitive ward behavior scale
Psychological Reports. 1966, 19: 180-182
The NOSIE-30 is also available in
Lyttle, Jack. Mental disorder : its care and treatment. London : Balliere Tindall, 1986. (Appendix 2, p 412-415)
For a selective list of journal articles on the NOSIE and its uses click here
Online Depression Screening Test From the New York University Department of Psychiatry.
Overt Agitation Severity Scale
Yudofsky S C, Kopecky H J, Kunik M, Silver J M, Endicott J
The Overt Agitation Severity Scale for the objective rating of agitation
Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 1997, 9: 541-548.
Kopecky H J, Kopecky C R, Yudofsky S C
Reliability and validity of the Overt Agitation Severity Scale in adult psychiatric inpatients
Psychiatric Quarterly 1998, 69(4): 301-323
Owner-Pet Relationship scale The Owner-Pet Relationship scale was developed in 2006 by Drs Helen Winefield and Anna Chur-Hansen, University of Adelaide, South Australia. The scale was developed to measure the attachment felt by pet owners towards their companion animals, using "attachment" in accordance with psychological theories and concepts.
Parent-Infant Relationship Global Assessment Scale (PIR-GAS) A 90-point scale used to assess the quality of an infant-parent ( or caretaker) relationship based on a continuum from well adapted to grossly impaired.
Patient Health Questionnaire
Including PHQ, PHQ-9, PHQ-Brief, and PHQ-SADS. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) was developed as an alternate screening instrument to the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD). The self-administered 16-question PHQ has diagnostic validity comparable to PRIME-MD and includes mood, anxiety, alcohol, eating, and somatoform modules. The PHQ was developed by Robert L. Spitzer, MD, and colleagues, with an educational grant from Pfizer Inc.
Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire - 4 The PDQ-4 is an interactive program that determines the presence of personality disorders consistent with the DSM--IV, Axis II.. It can be used by psychologists, psychiatrists, counsellors and other mental health professionals to aid in the diagnosis or screening of patients.
Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) Training is required in the use of PANSS to ensure inter-rater reliability. The scale itself is not available on the web.
Kay SR, Fiszbein A, and Opler LA
The positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) for schizophrenia.
Schizophrenia Bulletin 1987, 13: 261-276
For a selective list of journal articles on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and its uses click here
Present State Examination (PSE)
Wing, John Kenneth, Cooper, John Edward and Sartorius, N
Measurement and classification of psychiatric symptoms; an instruction manual for the PSE and Catego Program.
London: New York: Cambridge University Press, 1974.
Wing, John Kenneth, Cooper, John Edward and Sartorius, N
Present state examination : 9th ed.
London : Cambridge University Press, 1973, c1974.
see also Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) which is based on the 10th revision of the Present State Examination (PSE)
Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD)
Spitzer RL, Williams JBW, Kroenke K, and others Utility of a new procedure for for diagnosing mental disorders in primary care: the PRIME-MD 1000 study. JAMA 1994, 272: 1749-1756
ProQOL 5 The ProQOL is the most commonly used measure of the negative and positive affects of helping others who experience suffering and trauma. The ProQOL has sub-scales for compassion satisfaction, burnout and compassion fatigue.
This page contains the most current version of the Professional Quality of Life Scales, the ProQOL. This revised version replaces the Compassion Satisfaction and Fatigue Test, the Compassion Fatigue Test and the Compassion Fatigue Self-Test.
see also Compassion Satisfaction and Fatigue (CSF) Test
Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening Questionnaire
Zimmerman M, and Mattia JI
A self-report scale to help make psychiatric diagnoses: the Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening Questionnaire.
Archives of General Psychiatry 2001, 58:787-94
Copies of the PDSQ are available from: Western Psychological Services, 12031 Wilshire Blvd, Los Angeles, CA 90025-1251 e-mail: CustSvc@wpspublish.com.
The Psychiatric Review of Symptoms: A Screening Tool for Family Physicians - November 1, 1998 - American Academy of Family Physicians This was published in the November 1, 1998 issue of American Family Physician.
Psychogeriatric Assessment Scales The Psychogeriatric Assessment Scales (PAS) provide an assessment of the clinical changes seen in dementia and depression. Three scales are derived from an interview with the subject (Cognitive Impairment, Depression, Stroke) and three from an interview with an informant (Cognitive Decline, Behaviour Change, Stroke). The PAS Summary Profile sheet indicates graphically correspondence between scale scores and clinical diagnoses and to aid the interpretation of individuals' results in terms of norms. The PAS is easy to administer and score and can be used by lay interviewers. The scales are suitable for application both in research and in services for the elderly.
Grossi, E., Groth, N., Paola, M., Cerutti, R., Pace, F., Compare, A., and Apolone, G.
Development and validation of the short version of the Psychological General Well-Being Index (PGWB-S)
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 2006, 4: 88.
Click on the Supplementary Material link to see the actual scale.
Psychosis Screening Questionnaire
Bebbington P, and Nayani T
The Psychosis Screening Questionnaire
International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research 1995, 5(1): 11-19
PSYRATS (Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales)
Haddock G, McCarron J, Tarrier N, and Faragher EB.
Scales to measure dimensions of hallucinations and delusions: the psychotic symptom rating scales (PSYRATS).
Psychological Medicine 1999, 29(4): 879-89.
QIDS (Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology)
Quality of Life Index (QLI) The QLI was developed by Carol Estwing Ferrans and Marjorie Powers in 1984 to measure quality of life in terms of satisfaction with life. The QLI measures both satisfaction and importance regarding various aspects of life.
Quality of Life Interview (QOLI)This scale was designed to assess the quality of life of people with severe and persistent mental illness.
A Quality of Life Interview for the chronically mentally ill
Evaluation and Program Planning 1998, 11: 51-62
The Quality of Life Toolkit (1995) , which contains the full and brief versions of the QOLI is available free of charge from:
The Evaluation Center Health Services Research Institute (HRSI) 2336 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02140
Quality of Life Scale (QLS) This scale was developed to assess the quality of life of individuals with schizophrenia.
Heinrichs DW, Hanlon TE and Carpenter WT
The Quality of Life Scale [QLS]: An Instrument for Rating the Schizophrenic Deficit Syndrome.
Schizophrenia Bulletin, 1984 10(3): 388-398
Quality of Life Scale (QOLS) The QOLS is a 16-item domain-specific scale developed by John Flanagan and modified for use in chronic illness populations by Carol Burckhardt.
Range of Impaired Functioning Tool (LIFE-RIFT)
Leon AC, Solomon DA, Mueller TI, Turvey CL, Endicott J, and Keller MB
The Range of Impaired Functioning Tool (LIFE-RIFT): A brief measure of functional impairment.
Psychological Medicine July 1999, 29(4): 869-878
The LIFE-RIFT is appended
Recovery Oriented Systems Indicators (ROSI)The ROSI is developed from and grounded in the lived experiences of adults with serious and prolonged psychiatric disorders. Thus, the ROSI consumer self-report survey and administrative profile are designed to assess the recovery orientation of community mental health systems for adults with serious and prolonged psychiatric disorders.
Review of Diagnostic Screening Instruments for Alcohol and Other Drug Use and Other Psychiatric Disorders
Review of Diagnostic Screening Instruments for Alcohol and Other Drug Use and Other Psychiatric Disorders 2nd. ed.
Canberra, Dept.of Health and Ageing, 2002
Monograph series / National Drug Strategy ; no. 48.
Role Function Scale (RFS)
Goodman SH, Sewell DR, Cooley EL, and Leavitt N
Assessing levels of adaptive functioning: th Role Function Scale
Community Mental Health Journal April 1993, 29(2): 119-131
Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale A full description of the original scale can be found in the Appendix of
Society and the Adolescent Self-Image.
Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1965
(Chapter 2 discusses construct validity.)
Salford Needs Assessment Schedule for Adolescents
Kroll L, Woodham A, Rothwell J, Bailey S, Tobias C, Harrington RC, and Marshall M
Reliability of the Salford Needs Assessment Schedule for Adolescents.
Psychological Medicine 1999, 29: 891-902
Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS) and Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS)
Negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Definition and reliability.
Archives of General Psychiatry Jul 1982, 39(7): 784-8
Andreasen NC, and Olsen, S
Negative v positive schizophrenia. Definition and validation.
Archives of General Psychiatry Jul 1982, 39(7): 789-94
Schizophrenia : positive and negative symptoms and syndromes / volume editor, Nancy C. Andreasen.
Basel ; New York : Karger, c1990.
Modern problems of pharmacopsychiatry vol. 24
Schutte, Nicola S
Sourcebook of adult assessment strategies, by Nicola S. Schutte and John M. Malouff.
New York: Plenum Press, c1995. (pp.59-96)
For a selective list of journal articles about Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS) and Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) and their uses click here
Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS)
Endicott J, Spitzer RL.
A diagnostic interview: the schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia.
Archives of General Psychiatry Jul 1978, 35(7): 837-44
There is also a children's version of this scale See Kiddie-SADS
Schedule for the Deficit Syndrome (SDS) The Schedule for the Deficit Syndrome (SDS) is an instrument for categorizing patients with schizophrenia into those with and those without the deficit syndrome.
Kirkpatrick B, Buchanan RW, McKenney PD, Alphs LD, Carpenter WT Jr.
The Schedule for the Deficit syndrome: an instrument for research in schizophrenia.
Psychiatry Research 1989 Nov;30(2):119-23.
Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) (SCAN is based on the 10th revision of the Present State Examination (PSE))
There is a reference manual for SCAN:- Diagnosis and clinical measurement in psychiatry : a reference manual for SCAN / edited by J.K. Wing, N. Sartorius, and T.B. Ustun. Cambridge: New York :, Cambridge University Press, 1998.
WHO SCAN Schedules for clinical assessment in neuropsychiatry: version 2:
For a selective list of journal articles on the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry click here
Screen for Caregiver Burden
Vitaliano PP, Russo J, Young HM, and others
The Screen for Caregiver Burden.
Gerontologist 1991, 31: 76-83
Screening Assessment of Depression-Polarity (SAD-P) Patients with bipolar I or II major depression are often misdiagnosed with unipolar major depression. The goal of this study was to develop and validate a brief instrument to screen for bipolar disorder in patients actively ill with major depression.
Solomon DA, Leon AC, Maser JD, Truman CJ, Coryell W, Endicott J, Teres JJ, Keller MB.
Distinguishing bipolar major depression from unipolar major depression with the screening assessment of depression-polarity (SAD-P).
Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2006 Mar;67(3):434-42.
Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) The SF-36 is is a set of generic, coherent, and easily administered quality-of-life measures.
The development of the scale and its purpose are described in the article below (the questions which comprise the scale are attached as an appendix)
Ware JE, and Sherbourne CD
The MOS 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) 1. Conceptual framework and item selection.
Medical Care June 1992, 30(6) 473-483
Social Readjustment Rating Scale
Holmes T H, and Rahe RH
The Social Readjustment Rating Scale.
Journal of Psychosomatic Research 1967, 11(2): 213-218
Social Support Questionnaire
Sarason, Irwin G., Levine, Henry M., and Basham, Robert B.
Assessing social support: The Social Support Questionnaire.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1983, 44(1): 127-139.
There is also a short version
Sarason, Irwin G., Sarason, Barbara R., and Shearin, Edward N.
A Brief Measure of Social Support: Practical and Theoretical Implications.
Journal of Social and Personal Relationships 1987, 4(4): 497-510.
Both can be found online Sarason Questionnaires. University of Washington Psychology along with other questionnaires developed by Drs Irwin and Barbara Sarason.
Specific Loss of Interest and Pleasure Scale (SLIPS)
Winer E S, Veilleux J C, and Ginger EJ.
Development and validation of the Specific Loss of Interest and Pleasure Scale (SLIPS)
Journal of Affective Disorders. 2014 Jan; 152-154: 193-201
Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) The Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) is designed to assess children's report of anxiety. The scale assesses a wide range of anxiety symptoms, and provides information about specific childhood anxiety disorders.
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) Developed by Dr. Robert Goodman at the Maudsley Hospital, London.
The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: A Research Note.
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1997, 38, 581-586.
Goodman, R., Meltzer, H., & Bailey, V.
The Strengths and Difficulties questionnaire: A pilot study on the validity of the self-report version.
European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry,1998, 7: 125-130
Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders (SCID) There is a new SCID website with details of the various versions of the SCID and their availability.
Details for SCID-V are available from APPI (American Psychiatric Association Publishing)
Suicide Assessment Scale
Stanley, Barbara, Traskman-Bendz, Lil, and Stanley, Michael
The Suicide Assessment Scale: a scale evaluating suicidal behavior.
Psychopharmacology Bulletin 1986, 22(1): 200-205
Suicide Intent Scale (SIS)
Beck AT, Schuyler D, and Herman I. Development of suicidal intent scales in Beck AT, Resnik HLP, and Lettieri D, eds. The Prediction of Suicide. Baltimore, Md., Charles Press Publishers, 1974, p45-56.
Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) This is a brief, multidimensional self-report inventory designed to screen for a broad range of psychological problems and and symptoms. It is copyrighted by Leonard R. Derogatis with all rights reserved, but a description of the scale and its uses is available at this site.
The measure, manual and computer versions can be purchased from: Pearson Assessments, P.O. Box 1416, Minneapolis, MN 55440
For a selective list of journal articles on the Symptom Checklist-90 and its uses click here
Thought Control Questionnaire (TCQ) The Thought Control Questionnaire (TCQ) is a 30-item instrument designed to assess the effectiveness of strategies used for the control of unpleasant and unwanted thoughts.
Wells, A., and Davies, M.I
The Thought Control Questionnaire: A measure of individual differences in the control of unwanted thoughts.
Behaviour Research and Therapy 1994, 30: 871-878
Trauma Symptom Check-list 33 and 40 Measure Authors: John Briere and Marsha Runtz. This page contains a psychometric review of the TSC 33/40, with references up to mid-1998, followed by a free copy of the TSC-40 (at the end of the page)
Tennant, R., Hiller, L., Fishwick, R., Platt, S., Joseph, S., Weich , S., Parkinson, J., Secker, J., and Stewart-Brown S.
The Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS): development and UK validation.
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 2007, 5: 63
Free full text from BioMed Central. This article describes the development and validation of a new scale, comprised only of positively worded items relating to different aspects of positive mental health. You'll find a link to the scale with the references at the end of the article.
WHO-Five Well-being Index The WHO-Five Well-being Index was derived from a larger rating scale developed for a WHO project on quality of life in patients suffering from diabetes (WHO 1990).
WHOQoL (World health Organization Quality of Life) World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQoL) Project is an international collaboration which has developed quality of life (QoL) profile instruments designed to be cross-culturally valid and sensitive. The instruments have wide application in cross-sectional population studies as well as in intervention evaluations, particularly in the health field.
For a list of journal articles on WHOQoL click here.
Wisconsin Quality of Life Index(W-QLI) This measure is designed to assess the quality of life of people with severe and persistent mental illness. It may also be of value in evaluating the effectiveness of treatment programs for the chronically mentally ill. There are separate versions for clients, providers, and family members.
Becker M, Diamond R, and Sainfort F
A new patient focused index for measuring quality of life in persons with severe and persistent mental illness
Quality of Life Research Aug 1993 2(4): 239-51
Goodman WK, Price LH, Rasmussen SA, Mazure C, Fleischmann RL, Hill CL, Heninger GR, Charney DS.
The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. I. Development, use, and reliability.
Archives of General Psychiatry Nov 1989, 46(11):1006-11
Goodman WK, Price LH, Rasmussen SA, Mazure C, Delgado P, Heninger GR, Charney DS.
The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. II. Validity.
Archives of General Psychiatry Nov 1989, 46(11): 1012-6
Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS)
Young RC, Biggs JT, Ziegler VT et al
A rating scale for mania: reliability, validity, and sensitivity.
British Journal of Psychiatry 1978, 133: 429-435
Zung WW, Durham NC
A Self-Rating Depression Scale
Archives of General Psychiatry Jan 1965, 12: 63-70
Schutte, Nicola S
Sourcebook of adult assessment strategies, by Nicola S. Schutte and John M. Malouff. New York: Plenum Press, c1995. (pp.123-126)